Evidence for Evolution
Shows now extinct animals
that bear resemblance to animals living today.
Shows changes in forms of
life over large spans of time. Deepest & oldest sediments have marine
invertebrates and ever higher & younger sediments show sequence
of first appearance of fish then of amphibians then of reptiles
then of mammals.
Shows genetic lineages from
ancestors to descendants => transitional series => "missing
Developmental and structural
remnants of past ancestry found in living species
Embryos exhibit features of
ancestors (birds & anteaters have tooth buds, humans have lanugo =
thin coat of hair)
Vestigial limbs and organs
(kiwi wings, useless eyes for cave dwellers, human appendix, genes for
synthesizing vitamin C are inactive "pseudogenes in humans)
Biogeography = study
of geographic distribution of plants and animals
Oceanic islands have bizarre
flora and fauna: Missing or impoverished in many types of animals.
Missing animals do spectacularly
well when introduced by humans.
Islands have "radiations"
of an ancestral species.
Animals and plants on oceanic
islands bear greatest similarity to species found on nearest mainland.
Kinds of organisms on oceanic
islands are those that can easily get there.
Conclusion: Species on islands
descend from individuals who successfully colonized from the mainland
and subsequently evolved into new species.
ID and other creationism ideas argue
about #1 but are very weak on #2 and silent on #3.