Planet Tables

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Planets: Orbital Properties

Planet distance revolution eccentricity inclination

(A.U.)

(deg)
Mercury 0.387 87.969 d 0.2056 7.005
Venus 0.723 224.701 d 0.0068 3.3947
Earth 1.000 365.256 d 0.0167 0.0000
Mars 1.524 686.98 d 0.0934 1.851
Jupiter 5.203 11.862 y 0.0484 1.305
Saturn 9.537 29.457 y 0.0542 2.484
Uranus 19.191 84.011 y 0.0472 0.770
Neptune 30.069 164.79 y 0.0086 1.769
Pluto 39.482 247.68 y 0.2488 17.142
Notes: Distance is the semi-major axis in astronomical units (1 A.U. = 1.496× 108 km); rotation and revolution are the sidereal rotation period and sidereal orbital period, h = hours, d = Earth sidereal days; eccentricity is the orbital eccentricity = 1 – (perihelion/semi-major axis); and inclination is the tilt of the orbit with respect to the Earth's orbit. The planet's "mean orbital elements (J2000)" are used for the inclination, eccentricity, and distance. [Yes, Pluto is a dwarf planet.]

Planets: Physical Characteristics

Planet Mass Diameter density oblateness rotation axis tilt mag. field

(× ME) (km) (g/cm3) [=(De – Dp)/De]
(deg) (× Earth's)
Mercury 0.0553 4879 5.427 0.000 58.785 d ~0 0.0006
Venus 0.815 12,104 5.243 0.000 243.686 d 177.36 0.00
Earth 1.000 12,742 5.515 0.00335 23.9345 h 23.45 1.000
Mars 0.107 6779 3.933 0.00648 24.6229 h 25.19 0.00
Jupiter 317.83 139,822 1.326 0.06487 9.9250 h 3.13 19,519
Saturn 95.159 116,464 0.687 0.09796 10.656 h 26.73 578
Uranus 14.536 50,724 1.270 0.02293 17.24 h 97.77 47.9
Neptune 17.147 49,244 1.638 0.01708 16.11 h 28.32 27.0
Pluto 0.0021 2390 1.750 0.000 6.405 d 122.53 0.00
Notes: Mass is given in Earth masses (1 ME = 5.9736× 1024 kg); diameter is the ``volumetric mean diameter'' that takes into account the planet's oblateness; oblateness measures how much a planet bulges at the equator [= (equatorial – polar diameter)/(equatorial diameter)]; rotation is the sidereal spin period, "d" in rotation is sidereal day of Earth, and axis tilt is the tilt of the planet's rotation axis with respect to its orbital plane; magnetic field (mag. field) is the total strength (NSSDC gives strength in #gauss × Rplanet3, where Rplanet is the radius of the planet and the Earth's magnetic field strength = 0.3076 gauss × Rplanet3 = 7.981× 1010 gauss.

Planets: Atmospheres

Planet g
gE)
vesc
(km/s)
distance
(A.U.)
albedo
(%)
temperature
(K)
atm. press.
(× Earth's)
atm. comp.
Mercury 0.378 4.3 0.387 11.9 100 night,
590–725 day
10-15 42% O2, 29% Na, 22% H2, 6% He, 0.5% K (note that it is essentially a vacuum)
Venus 0.905 10.36 0.723 75 737 92 96.5% CO2, 3.5% N2,
0.015% SO2, 0.007% Ar, 0.002% H2O, 0.002% CO, 0.001% He, 0.001% Ne
Earth 1.000 11.186 1.000 30.6 283 night, 293 day 1.000 78.08% N2, 20.95% O2,
0.934% Ar, 0.038% CO2,
H2O highly variable ( <1%)
Mars 0.379 5.03 1.524 25.0 184 night, 242 day 0.004–0.009 95.32% CO2, 2.7% N2, 1.6% Ar,
0.13% O2, 0.08% CO, 0.021% H2O, 0.01% NO
Jupiter 2.530 59.5 5.203 34.3 165 >>1000 89.8% H2, 10.2% He,
0.3% CH4, 0.026% NH3. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water ice, ammonium hydrosulfide
Saturn 1.065 35.5 9.537 34.2 134 >>1000 96.3% H2, 3.25% He,
0.45% CH4, 0.0125% NH3, 0.0110% HD, 0.0007% C2H6. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water ice, ammonium hydrosulfide
Uranus 0.905 21.3 19.191 30.0 76 >>1000 82.5% H2, 15.2% He, 2.3% CH4,
0.0148% HD. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water ice, ammonium hydrosulfide, methane ice
Neptune 1.14 23.5 30.069 29.0 72 >>1000 80.0% H2, 19.0% He, 1.5% CH4,
0.0192% HD, 0.0002% C2H6. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water ice, ammonium hydrosulfide, methane ice
Pluto 0.059 1.2 39.482 40 to 60 ~50 3 x 10-6 CH4, N2
Notes: Surface gravity g is given in Earth gravities (1 gE = 9.798 m/s2); escape velocity is vesc, albedo is the percent of ALL of the Sun's energy hitting the planet that is reflected (100% would be perfect reflection); temperature and surface gravity for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune are given at a depth where the atmospheric pressure = 1 Earth atmosphere (1 bar); atmospheric pressure (atm. press.) is at the surface (>>1000 for the jovian planets).

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last updated: May 10, 2013

Is this page a copy of Strobel's Astronomy Notes?

Author of original content: Nick Strobel